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Showing posts from March, 2017

What are Active and Passive Attacks?

Passive Attacks:
Passive attack is an attack in which the purpose of the attacker is to only monitor or gain information about the system and/or its users i.e. traffic. This is only done to get the information from there without any aim of changing or damaging it. Passive attacks are considered to be attacks on confidentiality since the information present on the victim system is compromised in this type of attack. For example, if the system is of a shopping cart which stores the financial data of its customers such as credit card or bank account then this information is at risk. The attacker monitors the traffic on the network and finds that the user is sending his credit card information and captures that information. Passive attacks are quite difficult to track since the data is not altered by these attacks.
Active Attacks:
In this type of attack, the intension of the attacker is to alter the information from the victim’s system. The attacker makes changes to the data present at the vi…

HCI: How do You Strive for Consistency?

The eight golden rules of interface design by Ben Shneiderman are considered to be bases for user centric design. Among these eight rules striving for consistency is an important one. The rule helps mapping human psychology with software interfaces. Our brain tends to make patterns out of everything it interacts with and by following this rule, our brain will find it easier to use the system. And that is the whole purpose of user centric design – make the software usable for humans.
What is consistency in an interface?
This basically means that the interface must follow a pattern throughout. The dialog boxes in case of software or mobile app, and color of links and buttons in case of website should be same. It seems to be an obvious thing that every UI designer would follow; after all who would have two different colors of links for same web page or software screen. But the rule actually applies to more general things than what are obvious. For example, consider a mobile app for both …

Simplified DES Example: Step by Step

Simplified DES or S-DES is an encryption algorithm which follows feistal cipher structure. In this tutorial, we will take an example of S-DES. Let’s get started.
We need plaintext and key to start with. For this example, let’s consider 01001000 be the 8-bit plaintext and 1110001110 be the 10-bit key.
Key Generation: The first step in S-DES process is key generation. From the 10-bit key that we give as input, it generates 2 1-bit keys called k1 and k2. Following is the process:
1.Pass the 10-bit input key into the P10 table:
3 5 2 7 4 10 1 9 8 6
This gives: 1011001110. (For example, take the 3rd bit from input key which is 1. It becomes the first bit for our new key) 2.Divide the new key into two halves and left shift each half’s bits by one. So by dividing we get 10110 and 01110. We perform left shift so the left most bit becomes the right most bit and remaining each bit is shifted to its left. This gives: 01101 and 11100. Or you can think of it as the left most bit is taken to the righ…

HCI: Research Topic Ideas

I was reading an interesting research paper (Personal Tasks at Work: An Exploration, ACM 2017) in which the writer talks about the personal tasks that we have to do at work such as scheduling appointments, paying electricity and other bills, etc. The problem at first seems to be a social science one which has nothing to do with computer science but when looked closely the problem highlights an important aspect of our daily life that has to be sorted out using technology. The paper basically discusses those tasks and categorizes them based on frequency of occurring based on a survey. So, for example out of the 93 people who participated in the survey presented in the paper, 51% reported a need for scheduling an appointment while 33% have to coordinate their personal activities. Some will say (specially management science guys) that few of the problems can be solved by proper time management but remember that the purpose of technology is to make life easier for humans. Also, not every …

Security Issues in 2017

Cybercriminals are improving the techniques to attack on online systems and you need to keep the pace with them. They are adapting to the improvements in cyber security and creating evolving techniques to bypass the security mechanism. To keep your system secure you also need to adapt to new threats and protect your customers’ data from being compromised. We have collected a list of tasks that need to be done to stay secure and keep your system secure as well. The list is by no means complete but priority should be given to these tasks as they are fundamental things for protection against threats.

Identity and access management:

Identity and access management is critical to any cyber security practice.  It includes recording the information regarding the users of the system.  It further consists of authentication of the users and their rights of performing manipulation of records inside a system. You need to know – and keep track of – who is using your network and what he is up to. Ide…

4 Tips to Stay Secure in 2017

As the technology grows, so does the potential of compromising sensitive information. You need to take precautions to avoid hackers harming you or your system. Hackers are keeping up with the pace of security programs to gain access to your information. We have compiled a list of steps which when followed make you secure on the internet. Let’s take a look at them:
Always use a Firewall:
A firewall is a software program or network protection device that controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic to screen out hackers. Firewall program works by monitoring and blocking system calls that don't meet the predefined security rules. Always use a firewall to stay protected against threats. Firewall protects against unauthorized access of your pc, makes interaction through internet safer and blocks unnecessary messages that anyone might send.
Stay away from spam websites:
It is difficult to spot out a website that is spam from a website that is not. Often these kinds of websites use …

What is malware and how to remove it

What is Malware?
Many of us don't know the difference between viruses and malware and what the purpose of them. We think virus and malware are different than each other.  However malware is general term that includes viruses and we need to know which tool is beneficial for which malware. Malware not only includes viruses but further consist of worms, Trojans, adware and spyware. Any software which is used to damage the computer is called malware. It may be by exploiting some behavior of any software or by sending the information from a computer to any unauthorized person.
Viruses are malware that multiply themselves and make data corrupt or block user from taking particular actions that they otherwise would be allowed to take.
Spyware is software program that is used to collect data about the user of the system which may include sensitive information such as bank account, credit card or mobile number without the person’s knowledge and then send such information …